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Showcase of a private collection of coins from the Kingdom of the Franks and its dynastic offshoots.
Actively seeking coins satisfying these . Submit inquiries . - Gold and silver coin of exceptional strike or provenance.
- Issued by a state or dynasty which originated in Francia.
- Issuer follows the Salic law of inheritance if applicable.

Merovingian Dynasty, Kingdom of Burgundy 1.43g, 15mm, 6h

Tremissis in the name of Justinian I (c. 527-565)

DNIVSTINIANVSPERPEAGV

Transcription: (Latin) DOMINUS NOSTER JUSTINIANUS PERPETUUS AUGUSTUS
Translation: Our Lord Justinian ever August.
While the letters AGV are likely to be yet another one of the many different abbreviations of AVGVSTVS found on pseudo-imperial coinage, Pierre Crinon suggests that a deliberate ligature is formed out of the letters GV on the obverse, which could be read as the monogram of GENAVA (Geneva), then part of the Frankish kingdom.

Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I right.

VI CTO R IA AGV

Transcription: (Latin) VICTORIA AUGUSTORUM | Translation: Victory of the Augusts.

Victory advancing to the right, bearing palm and wreath. A star in right field. This exceptional specimen, distinguished from imperial archetypes by its style and initial cross, was likely minted in the Burgundian kingdom following its annexation by the Franks in 534.

To learn more:

  • Die merowingischen Münzen in der Schweiz (Geiger, Revue Suisse de numismatique, Tome 58, 1979)
  • Quelques monnaies inédites de Lyon, Chalon-sur-Saône et proposition d’attribution à Genève (Crinon et al., BSFN, 2010)
  • Related entries: Burgundy, Merovingians

Merovingian Dynasty, Kingdom of Aquitaine 1.26g, 13mm, 6h

Tremissis (Banassac, c. 623-630)

No inscription

Diademed head right with occipital button and beaded neck border. Inverted branch with three lanceolate leaves to the right; all within wreath.

Belfort notes that the (olive) branch, a symbol of peace, here replaces the word PAX found on other coins of Elafius.

T ELAFIVS MONETA

Transcription: (Latin) T ELAFIUS MONETARIUS | Translation: Elafius Moneyer.
The seemingly isolated T before ELAFIVS is believed to be a degenerate residual of the initial cross of ☩ ELAFIVS MONETA from previous types after the probable departure of Elafius from Banassac c. 623.

Chalice with curved, open-ended handles surmounted by cross; all within legend and wreath.

According to Grierson, the chalice might not have been related to the ancient industry of the locality, but is rather a play on the word gabali (Banassac being located in the Gévaudan region or civitas Gabalitorum) since this was close to a Celtic word for a cup which carried on into Old French as gobelet. A strictly Christian interpretation of the chalice should also not be ruled out.

Tremissis in the name of the moneyer Elafius were minted at Banassac, a town known for its production of terra sigillata pottery. The portrait might correspond to Clothar II or Dagobert I.

To learn more:

  • Traité Historique des Monnoyes de France (Le Blanc, 1690)
  • Monnaies Mérovingiennes du Gévaudan (Ponton d'Amécourt & Moré de Préviala, 1883)
  • Description générale des monnaies mérovingiennes, Tome I (Belfort, 1892)
  • Medieval European Coinage, Vol. 1 (Grierson & Blackburn, 1986)
  • Related entries: Aquitaine, Merovingians

Charles I, King of the Franks and Lombards |
Carolingian Dynasty
1.04g, 16mm, 6h

Tremissis (Lucca/Milan, c. 774-781)

DNCARVLVSREX

Transcription: (Latin) DOMINUS NOSTER CARULUS REX | Translation: Our Lord Charles, King.

Cross potent.

FL AVIA LVCA

Transcription: (Latin) FLAVIA LUCA | Translation: (Honorific title) City of Lucca.
There are different interpretations of the meaning of the title Flavia, which harkens back to the Flavian emperors of the late Roman Empire. According to Grierson, it may have related to the status or loyalty of a town with respect to its sovereign, signified a formal concession of minting rights, or was conceded to cities as a mark of honor. In the case of a dedication or homage to the sovereign, Bernareggi hypothesizes that the principal mint (probably Milan) would have struck them all using the names of the cities that wished to be remembered to the king. Wroth further argues that the title may be something more than an ornamental one and may have a technical meaning, implying that the city was akin to a royal burgh under the direct jurisdiction of the king or his representative.

Six-pointed star with additional short rays in voids; all within beading. Following his conquest of Italy in 774, Charlemagne initially continued the issues of gold tremisses with the same type and fineness as the former Lombard coinage.

To learn more:

  • Catalogue of the coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards (Wroth, BMC, 1911)
  • Medieval European Coinage, Vol. 1 (Grierson & Blackburn, 1986)
  • Émission monétaire et administration dans le royaume d’Italie (Rovelli, Revue Numismatique #165, 2009)
  • Carolingian gold coins from the Ilanz hoard (Bernareggi, Studies in Numismatic Method, 2010)
  • Related entries: Carolingians, Charlemagne, Lombards

Grimoald III, Duke of the Lombards 3.80g, 20mm, 7h

Charles I, King of the Franks and Lombards

Solidus (Benevento, c. 788-792)

GRIM - - VAL

Transcription: (Latin) GRIMUALD DUX | Translation: Grimoald, Duke.

Crowned and bearded bust of Grimoald facing, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand.

⋅DOMSCAR⋅R⋅⋅ / VIC / ς R

Transcription: (Latin) DOMINUS CAROLUS REX / VICTORIA / GRIMUALD
Translation: Lord Charles, King. / Victory. / Grimoald.
Here VIC occupies the usual position of CONOB of similar types, and is likely an abbreviation of the VICTORIA introduced in exergue by Grimoald's father Arichis II.

Cross potent with base on three steps, flanked by GR monogram. Struck in the joint names of Grimoald and Charlemagne in recognition of Frankish suzerainty over Benevento.

To learn more:

  • Catalogue of the coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards (Wroth, BMC, 1911)
  • Medieval European Coinage, Vol. 1 (Grierson & Blackburn, 1986)
  • Related entries: Carolingians, Charlemagne, Lombards

Roger II, King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia |
House of Hauteville
1.0g, 14mm, 6h

Tari (Palermo/Messina, 1138/39)

(...) /

Transcription: (Arabic) صب بمدينة صقلية سنة ثلث وثلثين وخمسمائه /المعتز بالله الملك رجار
Translation: Struck in the city of Sicily the year three and thirty and five hundred. / King Roger taking power from God.
The date is inferred from the partially visible legend which is pending a better identification.

Two concentric circles of Kufic legend around a central pellet.

(...) / IC XC NI KA

Transcription: (Arabic) صب بمدينة صقلية سنة ثلث وثلثين وخمسمائه / (Greek) IHCUC XPICTOC NIKA
Translation: Struck in the city of Sicily the year three and thirty and five hundred. / Jesus Christ Victor.

Processional cross with top right pellet, flanked by Greek monogram in quarters. A unique combination of both Arabic and Greek legend, representative of the cultural syncretism of the Sicilian kingdom.

To learn more:

  • Recherches sur la numismatique et la sigillographie des Normands de Sicile et d'Italie (Engel, 1882)
  • Medieval European Coinage, Vol. 14 (Grierson & Travaini, 1998)
  • Related entries: Roger I, Roger II

John II, King of France |
House of Valois
4.7g, 29mm, 4h, MS63 (NGC)

Mouton d'or (Paris, 1355)

✠AGN⦿DEI⦿QVI⦿TOLL'⦿PCCA⦿MVDI⦿MISERERE⦿NOB /
IOH' REX

Transcription: (Latin) AGNUS DEI QUI TOLLIS PECCATA MUNDI MISERERE NOBIS
Translation: Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.

Paschal lamb passant regardant with cruciferous nimbus, before a Latin cross bottony with base and gonfanon; all within epicycloidal tressure broken by inscription in exergue.

✠XPCVINCITXPCREGNATXPCIMPERAT

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS VINCIT CHRISTUS REGNAT CHRISTUS IMPERAT
Translation: Christ Triumphs, Christ Reigns, Christ Commands.

Cross bottony with lis in angles, within barbed quatrefoil with lis in spandrels. In center, floret within barbed quatrefoil. Also referred to as “Denier d'Or à l'Aignel” in the royal ordinance of 17 January 1355 mandating its emission.

To learn more:

  • Ordonnances des Rois de France de la Troisième Race, Vol. II (Secousse, 1729)
  • Histoire Monétaire de Jean le Bon Roi de France (Saulcy, 1880)
  • Recueil de Documents Monétaires, Tome I (Saulcy, 1888)
  • Related entries: Valois

Louis II, Count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel |
House of Dampierre
5.40g, 34mm, 10h

Lion heaumé d'or (Ghent, 1365-1370)

LV DOVICVSDEIGRACOM'ZDSFLADR IE / FLADRES

Transcription: (Latin) LUDOVICUS DEI GRATIA COMES ET DOMINUS FLANDRIE / FLANDRES
Translation: Louis, by the Grace of God, Count and Lord of Flanders. / Flanders.

Helmed lion sejant within a gothic stall.

BENEDICTVSQUIVENITINNOMINEDOMINI /
F L A / D'

Transcription: (Latin) BENEDICTUS QUI VENIT IN NOMINE DOMINI / FLANDRES
Translation: Blessed be He who comes in the name of the Lord. / Flanders.

Cross fleury with quadrilobes at point; abbreviation of Flanders spelled out throughout. From the collection of Dr. Albrecht Ulrich.

To learn more:

Charles VI, King of France |
House of Valois
4.02g, 24mm, 6h

Ecu d'or à la couronne (Saint-Quentin, 1385/88)

✠KAROLVSDEIGRACIAFRANC0RVMREX

Transcription: (Latin) KAROLUS DEI GRACIA FRANCORUM REX
Translation: Charles, by the Grace of God, King of the Franks.

Crowned arms of France.

✠XPC★VINCIT★XPC★REGNAT★XPC★INPERAT

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS VINCIT CHRISTUS REGNAT CHRISTUS INPERAT
Translation: Christ Triumphs, Christ Reigns, Christ Commands.

Cross fleury in shape of rhomboidal lozenge with lis at points, mint mark in center; all within a quadrilobe with inward-facing lis in angles and crowns in spandrels. The elongated 0 in FRANC0RVM differentiates it from an otherwise identical type issued under Charles VII with a round O.
Faint traces of die transfer on either side.

To learn more:

  • Ordonnances des Rois de France de la Troisième Race, Vol. 7 (Secousse, 1745)
  • Recueil de Documents Monétaires, Tome II (Saulcy, 1888)
  • Les Monnaies Françaises Royales, Tome II (Duplessy, 1999)
  • Related entries: Valois

Charles VII, King of France |
House of Valois
3.36g, 24mm, 1h, MS63 (NGC)

Ecu neuf (Tours, 1450)

♕KAROLVS:DEI:GRACIA:FRANCORVM:REX:♖

Transcription: (Latin) KAROLUS DEI GRACIA FRANCORUM REX
Translation: Charles, by the Grace of God, King of the Franks.

Crowned arms of France flanked by two crowned fleurs de lis.

♕XPC:VINCIT:XPC:REGNAT:XPC:IMPERAT♖

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS VINCIT CHRISTUS REGNAT CHRISTUS IMPERAT
Translation: Christ Triumphs, Christ Reigns, Christ Commands.

Cross fleury with crowns in angles, a quatrefoil in the center; all within a quadrilobe. The dot under the sixth letter indicates the mint of Tours.

To learn more:

  • Les Monnaies Françaises Royales, Tome II (Duplessy, 1999)
  • Related entries: Valois

Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders |
House of Valois
3.63g, 28mm, 8h, MS64 (PCGS)

Cavalier d'or (Ghent, 1434-1454)

PHSDEIGRADVXBVRGZCOMESFLANDRIE /
FLAD'

Transcription: (Latin) PHILIPPUS DEI GRATIA DUX BURGUNDICAE ET COMES FLANDRIE / FLANDRES
Translation: Philip, by the Grace of God, Duke of Burgundy and Count of Flanders. / Flanders.

Armored duke on horseback galloping right and brandishing sword, his caparisoned horse adorned with briquets.

✠SITnOMENDOMINIBENEDICTVMAMEN

Transcription: (Latin) SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTUM AMEN
Translation: Blessed Be the Name of the Lord, Amen.

Quartered shield of Burgundy with inescutcheon of Flanders superimposed on a floriated cross. The first of a three-type series introduced by Philip the Good as part of a monetary reform to unify coinage in the Low-Countries.

To learn more:

  • Les monnaies des Pays-Bas bourguignons et espagnols (1434-1713) (Gelder & Hoc, 1960)
  • Related entries: Burgundy, Flanders, Valois

Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders |
House of Valois
4.24g, 30mm, 9h

Lion d'or (Bruges/Ghent, 1454-1466)

PHSDEIGRADVXBVRGCOMFLAND

Transcription: (Latin) PHILIPPUS DEI GRATIA DUX BURGUNDICAE COMES FLANDRIE
Translation: Philip, by the Grace of God, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders.

Lion sejant beneath a gothic dais flanked by two flaming briquets.

✠SITnOMENDOMINIBENEDICTVMAMEN

Transcription: (Latin) SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTUM AMEN
Translation: Blessed Be the Name of the Lord, Amen.

Quartered shield of Burgundy with inescutcheon of Flanders superimposed on a floriated cross. The briquet was a common hallmark of the dukes of Burgundy.

To learn more:

  • Les monnaies des Pays-Bas bourguignons et espagnols (1434-1713) (Gelder & Hoc, 1960)
  • Related entries: Burgundy, Flanders, Valois

Charles IX, King of France |
House of Valois
3.36g, 24mm, 6h, AU58 (NGC)

Ecu d'or au soleil (Paris, 1562)

☀CAROLVS⋅VIIII⋅DG⋅FRANCO⋅REX⋅M⋅D⋅LXII

Transcription: (Latin) CAROLUS VIIII DEI GRATIA FRANCORUM REX M D LXII
Translation: Charles, by the Grace of God, King of the Franks. 1562

Crowned arms of France.

☀CHRISTVS⋅REGNAT⋅VINCIT⋅ET⋅IMPERAT / A

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS REGNAT VINCIT ET IMPERAT / A
Translation: Christ Triumphs, Reigns and Commands. / Paris mint mark

Cross fleurdelisée in shape of rhomboidal lozenge with mint mark in center.

To learn more:

Gaston de France, Duke of Orleans |
House of Orleans
3.3g, 26mm, 4h, MS61 (PCGS)

Usufructuary Prince of the Dombes

Ecu d'or (Trévoux, 1640)

GASTOFR⋅VN⋅REG⋅VSV⋅FR⋅SV⋅PRI⋅DOMB

Transcription: (Latin) GASTON FRATER UNICUS REGIS USUS FRUCTUARIUS PRINCEPS DOMBARUM
Translation: Gaston, unique brother of the King, Usufructuary Prince of the Dombes.

Crowned arms of Orleans.

DOMINVS⋅ADIVTOR⋅ET⋅REDEM⋅ME⋅1640

Transcription: (Latin) DOMINUS ADJUTOR ET REDEMPTOR MEUS 1640
Translation: The Lord is my support and redeemer. 1640

Cross anillée and fleurdelisée with flower in center. An exceptionally rare écu of Gaston de France, who received the usufruct of the principality of the Dombes after the death of his spouse Marie de Montpensier in 1627.

To learn more:

  • Monnaies féodales de France, Tome III (Poey D'Avant, 1858)
  • Les Monnaies Françaises Féodales, Tome II (Duplessy, 2010)
  • Related entries: Dombes, Orleans

Louis XIII, King of France and Navarre |
House of Bourbon
3.32g, 20mm, 6h

Demi louis à la mèche longue (Paris, 1643)

⋅LVD⋅XIII⋅D⋅G⋅ FR⋅ET⋅NAV⋅REX⋅ / 1643

Transcription: (Latin) LUDOVICUS XIIII DEI GRATIA FRANCIAE ET NAVARRAE REX
Translation: Louis XIIII, by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre.

Laureate head of Louis XIII right.

⋅CHRS⋅REGN⋅ ⋅VINC⋅ ⋅IMP⋅ / A

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS REGNAT VINCIT IMPERAT / A
Translation: Christ Triumphs, (Christ) Reigns, (Christ) Commands. / Paris mint mark.

Cross with arms composed of double-L monograms and terminating in crowns, lis in angles; circled mint mark in center. From the Fernand David collection.

To learn more:

Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre |
House of Bourbon
6.73g, 24mm, 6h

Louis d'or à la mèche longue (Lyon, 1652)

⋅LVD⋅XIIII⋅D⋅G⋅⋅s⋅FR⋅ET⋅NAV⋅REX⋅ / 1652

Transcription: (Latin) LUDOVICUS XIIII DEI GRATIA FRANCIAE ET NAVARRAE REX
Translation: Louis XIIII, by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre.

Laureate head of Louis XIV right.

CHRS⋅ ⋅REGN⋅ ⋅VINC⋅ ⋅IMP⋅ / D

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS REGNAT VINCIT IMPERAT / D
Translation: Christ Triumphs, (Christ) Reigns, (Christ) Commands. / Lyon mint mark.

Cross with arms composed of double-L monograms and terminating in crowns, lis in angles; circled mint mark in center. May have belonged to Jean Lepot, a royal dignitary in charge of the salt granary of Montrichard.
From the treasure of Montrichard discovered in 2007.

To learn more:

Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre |
House of Bourbon
6.73g, 23mm, 6h

Louis d'or à l'écu (Paris, 1690)

LVD⋅XIIII⋅D⋅G☀ FR⋅ET⋅NAV⋅REX

Transcription: (Latin) LUDOVICUS XIIII DEI GRATIA FRANCIAE ET NAVARRAE REX
Translation: Louis XIIII, by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre.

Laureate bust of Louis XIV right in peruke.

SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM 1690 A

Transcription: (Latin) SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTUM 1690 A
Translation: Blessed Be the Name of the Lord. 1690 Paris mint mark.

Crowned arms of France. From the treasure of Plozevet discovered in 2019.

To learn more:

Louis XV, King of France and Navarre |
House of Bourbon
6.5g, 23mm, 6h, MS62 (NGC)

Louis d'or mirliton (Paris, 1724)

LUD⋅XV D⋅G⋅FR⋅ET NAV⋅REX / 1724

Transcription: (Latin) LUDOVICUS XV DEI GRATIA FRANCIAE ET NAVARRAE REX
Translation: Louis XV, by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre.

Laureate bust of Louis XV right.

CHRS⋅REGN VINC⋅IMP⋅ / ⋅A⋅

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS REGNAT VINCIT IMPERAT / A
Translation: Christ Triumphs, (Christ) Reigns, (Christ) Commands. / Paris mint mark.

Two interlaced L under crown, all within palms. Dot in center. Recovered from the wreck of Le Chameau off Nova Scotia in 1965.

To learn more:

Louis XV, King of France and Navarre |
House of Bourbon
8.19g, 24mm, 6h

Louis d'or aux lunettes (Rouen, 1732)

LUD⋅XV⋅D⋅G⋅FR⋅ET⋅NAV⋅REX⋅

Transcription: (Latin) LUDOVICUS XV DEI GRATIA FRANCIAE ET NAVARRAE REX
Translation: Louis XV, by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre.

Draped bust of Louis XV left.

CHRS⋅REGN⋅VINC⋅IMPER 1732 / B

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS REGNAT VINCIT IMPERAT 1732 / B
Translation: Christ Triumphs, (Christ) Reigns, (Christ) Commands. 1732 / Rouen mint mark.

Crown above arms of France and Navarre; mint mark below. Former possession of Louis Nivelle, esquire at the royal court and usher at the Palace of Justice.
From the treasure of Rue Mouffetard discovered in 1938.

To learn more:

  • Trésors, archives secrètes (Bourgey, 1998)
  • Related entries: Bourbon, Navarre

Louis XV, King of France and Navarre |
House of Bourbon
8.1g, 24mm, 6h, MS62 (PCGS)

Louis d'or au bandeau (Paris, 1743)

LUD⋅XV⋅D⋅G⋅FR⋅ET NAV⋅REX⋅ /

Transcription: (Latin) LUDOVICUS XV DEI GRATIA FRANCIAE ET NAVARRAE REX
Translation: Louis XV, by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre.

Bare head of Louis XV left, hair tied by ribbon.

CHRS⋅REGN⋅VINC⋅IMPER✿1743 / A

Transcription: (Latin) CHRISTUS REGNAT VINCIT IMPERAT 1743 / A
Translation: Christ Triumphs, (Christ) Reigns, (Christ) Commands. 1743 / Paris mint mark

Crown above arms of France and Navarre; mint mark below. Another find from Louis Nivelle's cache.
Some die rust on the obverse.

To learn more:

  • Trésors: archives secrètes (Bourgey, 1998)
  • Related entries: Bourbon, Navarre

Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc |
House of Rohan
16.2g, 30mm, 6h

Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller

Scudo (Valletta, 1778)

FEMMANUEL DE ROHAN M M

Transcription: (Latin) FRATER EMMANUEL DE ROHAN MAGISTER MAGNUS
Translation: Brother Emmanuel de Rohan, Grand Master

Wigged, armored bust of Emmanuel de Rohan right.

⋅HOSPITALIS ET S SEPUL HIERUSAL 1778 / S⋅ 20

Transcription: (Latin) HOSPITALIS ET SANCTI SEPULCHRI HIERUSALEM 1778 / SCUDI 20
Translation: of the Hospital and Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. 1778 / 20 Scudi

Crown above arms of Malta and House of Rohan. Last type of gold scudo to have been struck by the Order of Malta before the French Republic took over the island in 1798.

To learn more:

Louis XVIII, King of France and Navarre |
House of Bourbon
6.45g, 21mm, 6h, MS65 (PCGS)

Louis d'or (Paris, 1814)

LOUIS XVIII ROI DE FRANCE / 𝒯𝒾𝑜𝓁𝒾𝑒𝓇

Translation: Louis XVIII, King of France. / Signature of engraver Pierre-Joseph Tiolier

Dressed bust of Louis XVIII to the right, hair tied by ribbon, wearing the cordon of the Order of the Holy Spirit.

PIECE DE 20 FRANCS / 1814 A

Translation: 20 Francs coin.

Crowned arms of France between two laurel branches tied at the base.

Edge: DOMINE SALVUM FAC REGEM

Transcription: (Latin) DOMINE SALVUM FAC REGEM | Translation: Lord, Save the King.

Issuance mandated during the First Restoration by the royal ordinance of 18 May 1814.

To learn more:

A repository of historical texts and scholarly works pertaining to the issuers of the coins in the collection. Greyed-out items indicate future uploads.

Selection of seminal texts on governance produced during the French monarchy. Existing English translations are used and improved whenever possible.

6th century: Letter to the bishops of Aquitaine (Clovis)

8th century: Preamble to the Salic Law

13th century: The Teachings of Saint Louis (Louis IX)

14th century: Treatise on the origin of money (Nicolas Oresme)

Selection of scholarly works recommended for further reading. A brief summary emphasizing key points is provided in English for each item as well as a download link when available.

Social system in Frankish Europe (Jean-Pierre Devroey, 2006) [FR]